Volume 132, Issue 16



October 18, 2018 – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, PhD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD.

Cover Figure: CME Article: silent cerebral infarction in sickle cell disease. See the article by Ford et al.

Silent infarcts in sickle cell disease occur in the border zone region and are associated with low cerebral blood flow
In this month’s CME article, Ford et al analyzed the pathophysiology of silent cerebral infarctions in sickle cell disease, demonstrating they occur in sites of lowest cerebral blood flow. Ninety percent of lesions cluster in a region comprising approximately 5% of the brain area.

Myeloma escape after stem cell transplantation is a consequence of T-cell exhaustion and is prevented by TIGIT blockade
TIGIT immune checkpoint blockade restores CD8+ T-cell immunity against multiple myeloma
Treatment of relapsed myeloma patients with checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has yielded disappointing results. Two complementary articles demonstrate that the T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) mediates T-cell exhaustion and promotes myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, TIGIT blockade may offer an alternative pathway for immunomodulatory therapy.

Duodenal-type and nodal follicular lymphomas differ by their immune microenvironment rather than their mutation profiles
Hellmuth and colleagues compared the molecular landscape of duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (DTFL), a rare and very indolent subtype of follicular lymphoma, and nodal FL. They report that while the tumor profiles of the 2 lymphomas are similar, DTFL has a unique inflammatory microenvironmental signature distinguishing it from nodal FL.

How I use molecular genetic tests to evaluate patients who have or may have myelodysplastic syndromes
Steensma uses 4 illustrative cases to review his approach to the use of molecular genetics tests to diagnose and counsel patients in the gray area of suspected myelodysplasia.

A phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in combination with azacytidine in patients with myelofibrosis
Masarova and colleagues report on encouraging results with ruxolitinib combined with azacytidine in the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis.

Measurable residual disease monitoring by NGS before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in AML
Thol and colleagues report that the presence of minimal residual disease by next-generation sequencing in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation is an independent negative predictor of relapse and survival.

Proton therapy for adults with mediastinal lymphomas: the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group guidelines
Dabaja et al review the use of proton therapy to spare radiation damage in the treatment of mediastinal lymphomas.

View this week's complete table of contents

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