Volume 129, Issue 18

Cover Figure: Tregs and dendritic cells protect against TRALI. See the article
by Kapur et al.

WASHINGTON, May 4, 2017 – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, PhD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD.

Ssb1 and Ssb2 cooperate to regulate mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by resolving replicative stress
Shi and colleagues use mouse knock-out studies to demonstrate that Ssb1 and Ssb2, proteins that bind single-stranded DNA, are critical guardians against replicative stress. Their study provides important insights into bone marrow failure associated with congenital syndromes such as Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita.

PUMILIO/FOXP1 signaling drives expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor and leukemia cells
Naudin et al demonstrate that the RNA-binding proteins PUM1 and PUM2 are necessary for normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell proliferation through upregulation of FOXP1. This pathway offers a potential target for the treatment of leukemia.

Elevated hematocrit enhances platelet accumulation following vascular injury
Walton and colleagues infused red cells into normal mice to demonstrate that elevated hematocrit is an independent contributor to arterial thrombosis, as it increases the frequency and duration of platelet interactions with the growing thrombus.

Depletion of coagulation factor XII ameliorates brain pathology and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease mice
Chen and colleagues elucidate the link between coagulation and the neuroinflammation of Alzheimer disease (AD). They report that contact system activation of factor XII contributes to vascular inflammation in AD, and that depletion of factor XII decreases neurovascular and cognitive changes in a mouse model of AD.

Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production
Du and colleagues use mouse models to demonstrate that pirfenidone is effective in improving bronchiolitis obliterans but not sclerodermatous manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD).

How do messenger RNA splicing alterations drive myelodysplasia?
In this Blood Spotlight review, Joshi et al discuss the questions to be addressed to better understand how splicing factor mutations contribute to the pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndrome.

Efficacy and tolerability of nivolumab after allogeneic transplantation for relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma
Herbaux and colleagues report excellent efficacy and acceptable safety results of nivolumab therapy in 20 patients relapsing with Hodgkin lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

T regulatory cells and dendritic cells protect against transfusion-related acute lung injury via IL-10
Kapur al demonstrate in a mouse model of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) that T regulatory–cell and dendritic-cell depletion increases TRALI. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) protects against TRALI, highlighting a potential therapeutic target.


This week's complete table of contents

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