Volume 134, Issue 3



July 18, 2019 – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, PhD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD.

Cover Figure: Vitamin K antagonist impairs hematopoiesis and stem cell function. See the article by Verma et al.

R-CHOP preceded by blood‐brain barrier permeabilization with engineered tumor necrosis factor-α in primary CNS lymphoma
The investigators report the feasibility and safety of using engineered tumor necrosis factor-a to increase blood‐brain barrier permeability in patients with relapsed/refractory primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The drug targets CD13 on tumor blood vessels and increases permeability of the blood‐brain barrier, improving the radiographic response to R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy.

Plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis enables macrophage migration in a murine model of inflammation
Plasminogen is necessary for macrophage migration. This study identifies a critical role of fibrinolysis in macrophage migration, presumably through the alleviation of migratory constraints imposed by the interaction of leukocytes with fibrin(ogen) through the integrin αΜβ2 receptor.

EFL1 mutations impair eIF6 release to cause Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
This work describes the identification of loss-of-function germline mutations in EFL1 that account for a subset of “gene‐negative” Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and explores the mechanistic link between mutations and disease pathogenesis using multiple complementary model systems.

Benefits and challenges with diagnosing chronic and late acute GVHD in children using the NIH consensus criteria
In a prospective multicenter trial described in this month's CME article, the investigators evaluated for the first time the performance of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for the diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in pediatric patients.

Hepatic leukemia factor is a novel leukemic stem cell regulator in DNMT3A, NPM1, and FLT3-ITD triple-mutated AML
The investigators explore the molecular interaction between mutations affecting the genes DNMT3A and NPM1 and internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of FLT3 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They show that the 3 co‐occurring mutations synergize to drive expression of the transcription factor HLF (hepatic leukemia factor), and establish HLF as a novel leukemic stem cell regulator that mediates the adverse phenotype in this high-risk AML genotype.

Vitamin K antagonism impairs the bone marrow microenvironment and hematopoiesis
This study provides direct evidence that the widely used vitamin K antagonist warfarin impairs hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell function in both mice and humans.

The enhancer RNA ARIEL activates the oncogenic transcriptional program in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
This work demonstrates that ARID5B-inducing enhancer associated long noncoding RNA (ARIEL) is a novel enhancer RNA that amplifies oncogenic transcriptional loops in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

View this week's complete table of contents

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