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Volume 129, Issue 8

Cover Figure: Cytohesin 1 regulates homing and engraftment of stem and progenitor cells. See the article by Rak et al.

WASHINGTON, February 23, 2017 – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, PhD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD.

Incomplete inhibition by eculizumab: mechanistic evidence for residual C5 activity during strong complement activation
Although eculizumab dramatically reduces intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), breakthrough hemolysis has been observed in the setting of infection. Harder and colleagues explain this phenomenon by demonstrating in vitro that strong complement activation can overcome inhibition by eculizumab.

Cytohesin 1 regulates homing and engraftment of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells
Rak et al report demonstrate that cytohesin 1 is a novel regulator critical for both homing and engraftment of HSC adhesion that mediates its effects through activation of integrins.

Multiple myeloma cells’ capacity to decompose H2O2 determines lenalidomide sensitivity
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) known to act on myeloma cells through cereblon (CRBN), but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Sebastian and colleagues demonstrate that IMiDs induce oxidative stress through inhibition of H2O2 decomposition, leading to CRBN-mediated degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 and cell death.

In vitro activation of coagulation by human neutrophil DNA and histone proteins but not neutrophil extracellular traps
NETosis, the process by which neutrophils release nuclear materials that form a meshwork in the extracellular space, is known to promote thrombosis. Noubouossie et al provide evidence that intact neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) do not in fact increase thrombin generation, although the single components (elastase, histone proteins, etc) are thrombogenic.

Risk of venous thromboembolism in pregnant women with essential thrombocythemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Skeith and colleagues present results of a meta-analysis of the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnant women with essential thrombocythemia (ET). They report that rates of postpartum VTE are sufficiently high in patients with ET to recommend enoxaparin prophylaxis, but use prepartum is equivocal.

N-acetylcysteine in preclinical mouse and baboon models of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can reduce disulfide bonds in von Willebrand factor (VWF), thereby decreasing VWF multimer size. Tersteeg and colleagues tested NAC as a treatment for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in mouse and baboon models, demonstrating that this did not translate into resolution of manifestations of TTP.

How I treat anemia in pregnancy: iron, cobalamin, and folate
Achebe and Gafter-Gvili develop an algorithm for the treatment of nutritional anemia in pregnancy in the context of 3 relevant clinical cases.

This week's complete table of contents

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Blood (www.bloodjournal.org), the most cited peer-reviewed publication in the field of hematology, is available weekly in print and online. Blood is the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) (www.hematology.org), the world’s largest professional society concerned with the causes and treatment of blood disorders.

ASH’s mission is to further the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders affecting blood, bone marrow, and the immunologic, hemostatic, and vascular systems by promoting research, clinical care, education, training, and advocacy in hematology.

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