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Volume 129, Issue 14

Cover Figure: Angiogenesis initiates graft-versus-host disease. See the article by Riesner et al.

WASHINGTON, April 6, 2017 – Welcome to “This Week in Blood,” a weekly snapshot of the hottest studies from each week’s issue of Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), hand-picked by Blood Editor-in-Chief Bob Löwenberg, MD, PhD, and Deputy Editor Nancy Berliner, MD.

Comparison of self-report and electronic monitoring of 6MP intake in childhood ALL: a Children’s Oncology Group study
Compliance with 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) maintenance therapy is critical for sustained remission. Landier et al show that self-reporting markedly overestimates compliance, highlighting a need for better monitoring methods to improve compliance and outcomes.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes dormant hematopoietic stem cells without proliferation in mice
In this week’s plenary paper, Bernitz and colleagues use elegant labeling studies to investigate granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow. They demonstrate that G-CSF mobilizes dormant HSCs into the circulation while inducing proliferation of CD41+ cells that have short-term, predominantly myeloid potential.

Adaptive NK cells can persist in patients with GATA2 mutation depleted of stem and progenitor cells

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Acquired somatic mutations in PNH reveal long-term maintenance of adaptive NK cells independent of HSPCs
Two papers in this issue suggest that a subpopulation of NK cells is long-lived and self-renewing. Schlums et al studied patients with GATA2 haploinsufficiency. They demonstrate that CD56dim (“adaptive”) NK cells persist and expand despite attrition of HSCs. Corat and colleagues confirm these observations in a study of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and report that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-negative cells are underrepresented in the CD56dim population, suggesting that they are long-lived and maintained independently from HSCs.

Neutrophils acquire the capacity for antigen presentation to memory CD4+ T cells in vitro and ex vivo
Beyond their role as effectors of the innate immune system, there is a growing recognition of the functional versatility of neutrophils in adaptive immunity. Vono et al demonstrate that in the presence of antigen and cognate antigen-specific memory T cells, neutrophils can express major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules and can present antigen.

Mice with a deficiency in CLEC-2 are protected against deep vein thrombosis
Payne and colleagues use conditional knockout mice to demonstrate that deficiency of CLEC-2 or neutralization of podoplanin, a CLEC-2 ligand expressed in the vessel wall, affords protection against deep venous thrombosis.

Initiation of acute graft-versus-host disease by angiogenesis
Riesner et al investigate the role of angiogenesis in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and show that, rather than occurring as a response to infiltrating leukocytes, angiogenesis occurs very early after transplantation and is involved in the initiation of GVHD.

Brincidofovir is highly efficacious in controlling adenoviremia in pediatric recipients of hematopoietic cell transplant
Hiwarkar and colleagues present encouraging data suggesting that brincidofovir provides excellent activity and safety in controlling adenoviremia during the early lymphopenic phase after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Minimal residual disease–guided therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Campana and Pui review the role of early assessment of minimal residual disease in guiding therapy for childhood ALL.

 

This week's complete table of contents

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Blood (www.bloodjournal.org), the most cited peer-reviewed publication in the field of hematology, is available weekly in print and online. Blood is the official journal of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) (www.hematology.org), the world’s largest professional society concerned with the causes and treatment of blood disorders.

ASH’s mission is to further the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders affecting blood, bone marrow, and the immunologic, hemostatic, and vascular systems by promoting research, clinical care, education, training, and advocacy in hematology.

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