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References

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Responsibility for citation accuracy

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their reference and citation information. Accuracy of journal titles, volume numbers, and page numbers is particularly important: References in the online journal will be accompanied by links to Medline records and other online content, but these links will work only if citation information is completely accurate.

If citation software is used, it should be checked carefully to ensure that it formats references according to current AMA Manual of Style, 10th edition, style. The Blood Production Office can answer any questions about current style, but contact your citation software's maker if the software does not generate references correctly.

Titles of articles, books, and so forth should not be edited for style; they should be accurately reproduced as they were published.

Reference citation or in-text citation?

A resource should be referenced only if it is a publication. This excludes manuscripts not accepted for publication, among other resources; such resources are carefully delineated below.

Principles of reference citation

Reference list

References are listed at the end of the article, before the figure legends and tables.

Numeric order

References should be listed in order of their first citation in text. Authors should take care to renumber references when adding, deleting, or moving citations during the peer-review process.

Reference-citation agreement

Every citation must have a reference, and every reference must have a citation. Authors should take care to ensure this when adding, deleting, or moving citations during the peer-review process.

Location of citation numbers

References may be cited only in main text, title-page notes, figure legends, and tables. Do not cite references in abstracts, figure titles, or table titles.

Reference citation formats

Basic format

Cite references in text by inserting the superscripted reference number.

During the last decade, high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support has become a common treatment in younger patients with myeloma.1

For clarity, superscripted citations may appear within a sentence or clause.

During the last decade, high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support1 has become a common treatment in younger patients with myeloma. The largest lesion found in the first study2 was 10 cm.

Punctuate multiple cited references with hyphens (3 or more consecutive references) and/or commas (nonconsecutive references or 2 consecutive references).

Rh is a highly complex red cell blood group system with 52 antigens and numerous phenotypes.1,2,5

Virtually all patients eventually die of progressive disease, with a median survival of approximately 3 years.1-3

Mention of referenced work in text

If the text needs to refer directly to the referenced work, use the author’s surname.

Holmgren4 raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another via the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.

If the reference has 2 authors, use both surnames.

Holmgren and Smith5 raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another via the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.

If the reference has 3 or more authors, use only the first surname, plus "et al."

Holmgren et al6 raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another via the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.

A superscript number should never be used alone as part of the grammar of the text.

For a review, see Zupanska.8 (Not: For a review, see 8.)

If necessary, another author involved may be mentioned in the text, but for clarity it is preferable to also follow the author name formulas above.

Jones’s group (Holmgren et al6) raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another via the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.

Jones’s group raised the question of whether DNA can be transferred from one cell to another via the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies.6-8

Also if necessary, the referenced work may be referred to by its title.

The full-text TEC evidence report, Use of Epoetin for Anemia in Oncology,7 should be consulted by those interested in a more detailed treatment of the state of the evidence supporting the use of epoetin in clinical oncology practice than the information provided in this guideline.

Citation of parts of referenced work

Cite a figure or a table in the referenced work by including in the superscript a parenthetical immediately after the reference number; use "Fig" or "Tab" with the item number closed up afterward.

We have shown, however, that 48 hours after IVIG injection, platelet-associated antiplatelet IgG remained at the same levels as seen in mice receiving antiplatelet antibody alone.2(Fig1)
In this respect, we remark that patient 2 described in our series as alive with sMDS1(Tab2) subsequently developed sAML and died recently of resistant leukemia.

Cite a page of another work in the same way, using "p" or "pp" with the number(s) closed up afterward.

We have shown, however, that 48 hours after IVIG injection, platelet-associated antiplatelet IgG remained at the same levels as seen in mice receiving antiplatelet antibody alone.2(pp1945-1946)

Always cite direct quotations with a page number. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of quotations.

Based upon their work, the authors state that “decreases in plasma antibody levels would lead to decreases in the degree of platelet opsonization.”1(p2092)

Reference formats

Author list

Begin each reference with the author list. List each author’s surname followed by a space and a set of initials closed up without periods; include a hyphen if applicable. Separate each author name with a comma; do not use and between any entries. If there are 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. If there are more than 6 authors, list the first 3 authors followed by et al.

Arlin ZA.
Sallan SE, Weinstein HJ.
Kim S-C, Hahn J-S, Min Y-H, Yoo N-C, Ko Y-W, Lee W-J.
Wetzler M, Dodge RK, Mrózek K, et al.

Journal articles

Include the article title (capitalized sentence style and ending with a period), journal name (italicized and abbreviated according to the National Library of Medicine), year (followed by a semicolon), volume number, issue number in parentheses (followed by a colon), and inclusive page numbers (followed by a period).

Lenhoff S, Hjorth M, Holmberg E, et al. Impact on survival of high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support in patients younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a population-based study. Blood. 2000;95(1):7-11.

Prepublished journal articles

Articles accepted for publication and prepublished (aka published ahead of print) should be referenced like a journal article, except that the DOI (digital object identifier) and the date of prepublication should supplant the year, volume number, and page numbers.

Hou TZ, Verma N, Wanders J, et al. Identifying functional defects in patients with immune dysregulation due to LRBA and CTLA-4 mutations [published online ahead of print 3 February 2017]. Blood. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-745174.

Journal articles in press

Journal articles that are in press but are not prepublished should be referenced like other journal articles, except instead of year, volume number, and page numbers, include the phrase “In press.”

Lenhoff S, Hjorth M, Holmberg E, et al. Impact on survival of high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support in patients younger than 60 years with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a population-based study. Blood. In press.

Only manuscripts that have been accepted should be referenced this way. If a manuscript has not yet been accepted, it should be cited per Citations in text only.

Books and chapters thereof

Include the book title (capitalized title style and ending with a period), place of publication (followed by a colon), publisher (followed by a semicolon and a space), and the year of publication (followed by a period).

McGarry MP, Protheroe CA, Lee JJ. Mouse Hematology: a Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2010.

If referencing a chapter of a book, include the chapter title (capitalized sentence style and ending with a period), "In:" (followed by a space), any book editors (listed in author-list style and ending with "ed." or "eds."), the book title, the volume and/or edition if any, and the place, publisher, and year of publication, followed by a colon and the chapter’s page numbers.

Wilson ML, Weinstein MP, Reller LB. Laboratory detection of bacteremia and fungemia. In: Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Carroll KC, et al, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Vol 1. 11th ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2015:15-28.

Papers and abstracts of papers

When referencing a paper presented at a meeting with a published abstract, reference the published abstract. Always give an abstract number; the page number is optional.

Mueller MC, Gattermann N, Lahaye T, et al. Dynamics of BCR-ABL mRNA transcript expression in newly diagnosed CML patients treated with imatinib or interferon alpha [abstract]. Blood. 2002;100(11):365a. Abstract 1413.

When referencing a paper presented at a meeting but not published in any form, include the title, the meeting name, the date of presentation, and the geographic location.

Eisenberg J. Market forces and physician workforce reform: why they may not work. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 28 October 1995. Washington, DC.

Editorials, commentaries, introductions, and letters

When a reference is made to one of these article types, include the type of item in brackets at the end of any title.

Cazzola M. Introduction to a review series on myeloproliferative neoplasms [editorial]. Blood. 2017;129(6):659.

Besson-Fournier C, Gineste A, Latour C, et al. Hepcidin upregulation by inflammation is independent of Smad1/5/8 signaling by activin B [letter]. Blood. 2017;129(4):533-536.

If referencing an Inside Blood Commentary, refer to it as a commentary.

Roberts I, de la Fuente J. Sickle cell disease: the price of cure [commentary]. Blood 2016;128(21):2486-2488.

Errata and retractions

Cite retracted articles and articles with errata in full, with the information about the erratum or retraction in square brackets after the article title.

Baraff LJ, Bass JW, Fleisher GR, et al. Practice guideline for the management of infants and children 0 to 36 months of age with fever without source [published correction appears in Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(9):1490]. Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22(7):1198-1210.

Yu Y, Cao F, Ran Q, Sun X. Regulatory T cells exhibit neuroprotective effect in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury [retracted in: Mol Med Rep. 2017;15(5):2897]. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14(6):5556-5566.

Official reports and guidelines

Reference freestanding official reports and guidelines as books.

National Research Council. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 8th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2011.

Software manuals

Cite software manuals by using the book reference format.

SAS user’s guide: statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 1999.

But if citing the use of software itself, see Citations in text only, Software programs.

Online documents

If a publication or document is available in online form only, then reference it providing author name (or any institutional author), document title, the URL, and the date on which it was accessed.

Gilmore T. NF-κB transcription factors. http://www.bu.edu/nf-kb. Accessed 10 February 2017.

European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 7.1, valid from 2017-03-10. http://www.eucast.org/fileadmin/src/media/PDFs/EUCAST_files/Breakpoint_tables/v_7.1_Breakpoint_Tables.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2017.

Online databases

Reference an online database with its author name (or any institutional author), database name, its URL, and the date on which it was accessed.

McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. OMIM: online Mendelian inheritance in man. http://www.omim.org. Accessed 10 February 2017.

Citations in text only

Some items should not be referenced and should be cited in text only in parentheses.

Personal communications

List the person’s name, the affiliation, the method of communication, and the date.

Mice deficient in fibrinogen are born at the expected Mendelian frequency but can exhibit perinatal hemorrhage and death at frequencies that vary from 10% to 70% depending upon genetic background (Jane A. Smith, Harvard University, email, 19 July 2003).

Authors are responsible for acquiring written permission when citing a personal communication; the journal may request a copy of this permission.

Unpublished observations, data, or procedures

List all persons responsible for the material, a brief description, and a date. If a person is an author of the current article, use that person’s initials.

Not all the protein in the standards binds to the well (L.X. and K.P.P., unpublished data, 14 May 2017).

If a nonauthor is responsible for the material, list that person’s full name if at all possible.

Other studies have clearly demonstrated that HSCs can contribute to the brain (Christopher R. Cogle, Anthony T. Yachnis, Eric D. Laywell, unpublished observations, 21 August 1999)

Not all the protein in the standards binds to the well (L.X. and Eric D. Laywell, unpublished data, 14 May 2017).

Manuscripts in preparation

List all persons responsible for the material. If a person is an author of the current article, use that person’s initials.

These phenotypes can be conferred to wild-type mice by bone marrow reconstitution with PAR4-deficient marrow and rescued in PAR4 null mice by reconstitution with wild-type marrow (J.R.H. and S.R.C., manuscript in preparation).

If a nonauthor is responsible for the material, list that person’s full name if at all possible.

These phenotypes can be conferred to wild-type mice by bone marrow reconstitution with PAR4-deficient marrow and rescued in PAR4 null mice by reconstitution with wild-type marrow (Justin R. Hamilton and Shaun R. Coughlin, manuscript in preparation).

Manuscripts submitted but not accepted

List all persons responsible for the material and the date of submission. If a person is an author of the current article, use that person’s initials; otherwise, use the person’s full name.

We analyzed the potential of these cells to support HIV-1 infection and found that productive infection is dependent on the presence of exogenously administered rhGM-CSF (F.S. and Antonio Bernad, manuscript submitted January 2016.

If a nonauthor is responsible for the material, list that persons’s full name if at all possible.

We analyzed the potential of these immature human dendritic cells to support HIV-1 infection, and found that productive infection is dependent on the presence of exogenously administered rhGM-CSF (Fernando Serrano and Antonio Bernad, manuscript submitted January 2004).

Software programs

Cite software programs like materials used, including the manufacturer and the manufacturer’s location.

Toxicities were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) version 2.0 (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD).

The following primers were designed using Primer Express 1.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA): ...

Alternatively, a website may be given instead of a location.

The following primers were designed using Primer Express 1.0 software (Applied Biosystems, http://www.appliedbiosystems.com): ...

But if citing software manuals, create a numbered reference per Reference formats, Software manuals.