Table 1

Summary of determinants of high-risk myeloma

Risk factorMeasurementHigh risk
Disease burdenβ2M, serum albuminISS III (β2M ≥5.5 mg/mL)
Tumor biologyExtramedullary diseasePCL plasmacytoma
ProliferationPlasma cell labeling index ≥3%
GeneticsCytogeneticsdel(17p), 1q21 amplification
FISHt(4;14), t(14;16), del(17p), 1q21 amplification, 1p deletions
ISS/geneticsβ2M, serum albumin cytogenetics, FISHISS II/III, at least one genetic abnormality
Gene expressionExpression microarrayUAMS 70-gene signature, IFM 15-gene signature, proliferation index, EMC-92-gene signature
  • β2M, β2-microglobulin; PCL, plasma cell leukemia.