Table 1.

Target antigens that have been considered for CAR-T therapies of MM

AntigenExpression in nonmalignant cellsExpression in MMClinical trial of CAR-Ts in myelomaReferences
CD44v6Activated T cells, activated monocytes, keratinocytesReported to be expressed by 43% of advanced MM casesNo62, 63
CD70Activated lymphoid cellsOnly a portion of the myeloma cells express CD70 in most casesNo64, 66
CD56NK cells, T cells, neuronal cellsStrongly expressed in 70% of patients with myelomaNo67, 68, 70
CD38Precursor B cells, plasma cells, T cells, NK cells, myeloid precursors, prostate cells, nervous system, osteoclasts, muscle cellsStrong, uniform expression on myeloma cellsNo72, 78, 79
CD138Plasma cells, salivary glands, liver, skinExpressed on MM cellsYes36, 81, 82
CD19B cellsMinimal expression of CD19 on myeloma plasma cell surface. CD19+ cells may represent cancer stem cell in MMYes10, 35, 59, 84
Immunoglobulin κ light chainMature B cellsPotential target on B cells that represent MM stem cells and that express surface immunoglobulinsYes21, 85
SLAMF7Plasma cells, NK cells, CD8+ cells, activated monocytes and B cells, dendritic cellsStrongly expressed by MM cellsNo88, 89
BCMAPlasma cells, small subset of B cellsExpressed on MM cellsYes9, 20, 37, 95, 96, 102, 103
  • BCMA, B-cell maturation antigen; NK, natural killer; SLAMF7, signaling lymphocyte–activating molecule F7.