Table 2.

Strategies to target factor XII or factor XI

StrategyMechanism of action
Antisense oligonucleotidesReduce hepatic synthesis of factor XII or factor XI
AptamersBind factor XII or factor XI and block activity
AntibodiesBind factor XII or factor XI and block activation or activity
Small moleculesBind reversibly to active site of factor XIIa or factor XIa and block activity
Polyanion antagonistsNeutralize polyphosphates or nucleic acids via ionic interactions, thereby attenuating contact pathway activation