Table 5.

Potential Indications for factor XII– or factor XI–directed strategies

IndicationRationale
Primary VTE prophylaxisLong-acting strategies such as antisense oligonucleotides or antibodies permit simple and safe single-dose regimens for extended thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients or after major orthopedic surgery
Secondary VTE prophylaxisMay be safer than current therapies for secondary prevention in patients with unprovoked or cancer-associated venous thromboembolism
Prevention of recurrent ischemia after ACSMay provide a safer anticoagulant platform on top of single- or dual-antiplatelet therapy
End-stage renal diseaseMay be safe and effective for reducing cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients receiving hemodialysis
High-risk atrial fibrillation patientsMay be safer than current therapies for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation at high risk of bleeding such as those with a history of major bleeding or with end-stage renal disease
Medical devicesMay be more effective and safer than current therapies to prevent clotting on mechanical heart valves, left ventricular assist devices, small caliber grafts, or central venous catheters
Extracorporeal circuitsMay be more effective and safer than heparin to prevent clotting on extracorporeal membrane oxygenator or cardiopulmonary bypass circuits