Table 11

Diagnostic criteria for CMML

CMML diagnostic criteria
• Persistent PB monocytosis ≥1 × 109/L, with monocytes accounting for ≥10% of the WBC count
• Not meeting WHO criteria for BCR-ABL1+ CML, PMF, PV, or ET*
• No evidence of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 rearrangement or PCM1-JAK2 (should be specifically excluded in cases with eosinophilia)
• <20% blasts in the blood and BM
• Dysplasia in 1 or more myeloid lineages. If myelodysplasia is absent or minimal, the diagnosis of CMML may still be made if the other requirements are met and
• An acquired clonal cytogenetic or molecular genetic abnormality is present in hemopoietic cells
• The monocytosis (as previously defined) has persisted for at least 3 mo and
• All other causes of monocytosis have been excluded
  • * Cases of MPN can be associated with monocytosis or they can develop it during the course of the disease. These cases may simulate CMML. In these rare instances, a previous documented history of MPN excludes CMML, whereas the presence of MPN features in the BM and/or of MPN-associated mutations (JAK2, CALR, or MPL) tend to support MPN with monocytosis rather than CMML.

  • Blasts and blast equivalents include myeloblasts, monoblasts, and promonocytes. Promonocytes are monocytic precursors with abundant light gray or slightly basophilic cytoplasm with a few scattered, fine lilac-colored granules, finely distributed, stippled nuclear chromatin, variably prominent nucleoli, and delicate nuclear folding or creasing. Abnormal monocytes, which can be present both in the PB and BM, are excluded from the blast count.

  • The presence of mutations in genes often associated with CMML (eg, TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, SETBP1) in the proper clinical contest can be used to support a diagnosis. It should be noted however, that many of these mutations can be age-related or be present in subclones. Therefore, caution would have to be used in the interpretation of these genetic results.