Table 1

Patients’ characteristics

VariablePavia cohort (n = 461)Heidelberg cohort (n = 271)P
n (%) or median (IQR)n (%) or median (IQR)
Age, y64 (56-61)61 (54-68)<.001
Gender, male264 (57)159 (59).710
Organ involvement
 Heart322 (70)190 (70).940
 Liver75 (16)72 (27).001
 Peripheral nervous system55 (12)39 (14).337
 Soft tissues49 (11)91 (33)<.001
Cardiac stage I/II/III105 (23)/196 (42)/160 (35)59 (27)/89 (41)/70 (32)*.504
NT-proBNP > 8500 ng/L85 (18)43 (16).377
Proteinuria, g/24 h5.1 (2.3-9.4)6.0 (3.3-9.0).046
Serum creatinine, mg/dL1.11 (0.87-1.70)1.1 (0.83-1.63).184
eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m262 (38-84)64 (42-88).204
CKD stage 1/2/3/4/594 (21)/148 (32)/139 (30)/53 (11)/27 (6)65 (24)/92 (34)/73 (27)/34 (12)/7 (3).154
dFLC, mg/L160 (62-402)126 (54-306).219
Type of first-line treatment
 Melphalan + dexamethasone214 (46.4)87 (32.1)<.001
 Bortezomib based128 (27.8)55 (20.3).024
 Thalidomide based57 (12.4)1 (0.4)<.001
 Dexamethasone alone34 (7.4)8 (2.9)<.001
 Autologous stem cell transplant19 (4.1)80 (29.5)<.001
 Treatment of IgM clones9 (1.9)1 (0.4)
 Melphalan + prednisone0 (0.0)16 (5.9)
 Anthracycline based0 (0.0)9 (3.3)
 Bendamustine0 (0.0)1 (0.4)
 Untreated0 (0.0)13 (4.8)
Type of second-line treatment
 Bortezomib based79 (42.5)62 (60.2).004
 Thalidomide based39 (21.0)6 (5.8)<.001
 Lenalidomide based19 (10.2)13 (12.6).532
 Melphalan + dexamethasone19 (10.2)14 (13.6).387
 Autologous stem cell transplant18 (9.7)0 (0.0).001
 Pomalidomide-dexamethasone5 (2.7)0 (0.0)
 Treatment of IgM clones4 (2.1)2 (1.9)
 Dexamethasone alone3 (1.6)0 (0.0)
 Bendamustine0 (0.0)3 (2.9)
 Ixazomib0 (0.0)2 (1.9)
 Melphalan + prednisone0 (0.0)1 (1.0)
  • The differences in treatment reflected different strategies over time. Chronic kidney disease stages are defined according to eGFR as follows: stage I, ≥90 mL/min per 1.73 m2; stage II, 60 to 89 mL/min per 1.73 m2; stage III, 30 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m2; stage IV, 15-29 mL/min per 1.73 m2; and stage V, <15 mL/min per 1.73 m2.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; dFLC, difference between involved (amyloidogenic) and uninvolved free light chain; IgM, immunoglobulin M; IQR, interquartile range; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro–natriuretic peptide type B.

  • * Available in 218 patients.

  • The 8500 ng/L NT-proBNP cutoff identifies patients with advanced cardiac involvement.8