Table 1.

Patient characteristics and response to therapy

γδ T-cell Proliferation
Patient Age, y/sex Diagnosis/stage* Prior therapy (no. of cycles) Off therapy, mo IL-2 dose level (no. of cycles) Side effects§ In vitro In vivo Response
Cohort A
1A 83/M MM/III MP (15) 2 0.25-0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (2) PD
2A 79/M CLL/IV CLB (10) 11 0.25-3 × 106 IU/m2 (6) F(1), T(3) + SD
3A 67/F CLL/IV PM (10), CLB (5) 2 0.25-0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (2) I(1), F(1), T(2) PD
4A 57/M IC/IV CLB/P (24), LR (30 Gy) 14 0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (1) T(2) PD
5A 76/F MM/III MP (9) 10 0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (1) I(2), F(2), T(2) ND NE
6A 63/F CLL/IV CLB/P (25), MCP (6), F (12), R (4) 5 0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (1) F(2), I(2) ND PD
7A 68/M CLL/IV CLB/P (4), COP (6), CLB (12) 2 1-2 × 106 IU/m2 (2) I(2), F(2), T(3) ND PD
8A 66/M MM/III MP (15), VID (6) 2 1 × 106 IU/m2 (1) ND PD
9A 58/M MZL/III MCP (6), TBI/CY + PBSCT (1) 29 1 × 106 IU/m2 (1) F(2), T(2) ND PD
10A 79/F MM/III CHOP (2), LR (50 Gy) 10 2-3 × 106 IU/m2 (2) F(1), T(2) ND PD
Cohort B
1B 73/M MM/III MP (2), VID (6) 3 0.25 × 106 IU/m2 (1) + PD
2B 59/M MM/III MP (16), VID (6), HD-M + PBSCT (1), IFN 2 0.25 × 106 IU/m2 (2) T(2) + PD
3B 52/M FCL/IV MCP (4), CHOP (2), Dexa-BEAM (2), IFN, LR (44 Gy), I131-R 4 0.25 × 106 IU/m2 (1) F(1), T(2) + + PD
4B 43/F FCL/III TNI (49 Gy) 24 0.5-1 × 106 IU/m2 (4) F(2), T(2) + + + + + + SD
5B 57/M MM/II VID (4) 2 0.5-2 × 106 IU/m2 (9) F(1), T(2) + + + + PR
6B 36/F MM/II LR (30 Gy) 3 0.5 × 106 IU/m2 (1) F(1), S(1) + + + PD
7B 46/M MZL/IV TNI (44 Gy) 29 1 × 106 IU/m2 (4) F(2), T(2) + + + SD
8B 51/F FCL/IV COP (10), LR (30 Gy), MCP (4) 48 2 × 106 IU/m2 (4) F(1), T(2), S(2) + + + + PR
9B 55/M FCL/III CHOP (4), Dexa-BEAM (2), TBI/CY + PBSCT (1), LR (30 Gy) 6 1-2 × 106 IU/m2 (8) F(1) + + PR
  • * MM indicates multiple myeloma; CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; IC, immunocytoma; MZL, mantle zone lymphoma. Staging according to Durie and Salmon (MM), Rai (CLL), Ann-Arbor (IC; MZL).

  • MP indicates melphalan/prednisone; CLB, chlorambucil; PM, prednimustine; COP, cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone; VID, vincristine/idarubicin/dexamethasone; MCP, mitoxantrone/chlorambucil/prednisone; CHOP, cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone; F, fludarabine; R, rituximab; TBI/CY, total body irradiation/high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT); LR, local radiotherapy (dose); I131-R; radioimmunotherapy with iodine131-rituximab; Dexa-BEAM, dexamethasone/carmustine/etoposide/cytarabine/melphalan; HD-M, high-dose melphalan followed by PBSCT; TNI, total nodal irradiation (dose); and IFN, INF-α (maintenance therapy).

  • Months between last chemotherapy/radiotherapy and first pamidronate/IL-2 treatment.

  • § T indicates thrombophlebitis; F, fever; S, skin-erythema; I, infection; (2) WHO grade 2.

  • In vitro results represent percentages of control culture according to the following calculation: (γδ T-cell number in pamidronate/IL-2 culture)−(γδ T-cell number in medium/IL-2)/(γδ T-cell number in medium/IL-2) × 100. In vivo results represent percentage of increase according to the following calculation: (Vy9δ2 T-cell number on day 8 after pamidronate/IL-2 infusion)−(Vγ9δ2 T-cell number before treatment)/(Vγ9δ2 T-cell number before treatment) × 100. − Indicates <20%; +, 20% to 100%; + +, >100% to 200%; + + +, >200% increase of γδ T-cell number; ND, not done.

  • SD indicates stable disease; PR, partial remission; PD, progressive disease; NE, not evaluable.

  • No absolute counts are available; however, percentage of γδ T cells increased from 7% to 19.5%.