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Ravulizumab (ALXN1210) vs eculizumab in C5-inhibitor-experienced adult patients with PNH: the 302 study

Austin G. Kulasekararaj, Anita Hill, Scott T. Rottinghaus, Saskia Langemeijer, Richard Wells, F. Ataulfo Gonzalez-Fernandez, Anna Gaya, Jong Wook Lee, Emilio Ojeda Gutierrez, Caroline I. Piatek, Jeff Szer, Antonio Risitano, Shinji Nakao, Eric Bachman, Lori Shafner, Andrew I. Damokosh, Stephan Ortiz, Alexander Röth and Regis Peffault de Latour

Key points

  • Ravulizumab every 8 weeks is noninferior to eculizumab every 2 weeks across all efficacy endpoints in eculizumab-experienced PNH patients.

  • Patients with PNH may be safely and effectively switched from labeled-dose eculizumab every 2 weeks to ravulizumab every 8 weeks.

Abstract

Ravulizumab, a new complement C5 inhibitor administered every 8 weeks, was noninferior to eculizumab administered every 2 weeks in complement inhibitor–naive patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). This study assessed noninferiority of ravulizumab to eculizumab in clinically stable PNH patients during previous eculizumab therapy. In this phase 3, open-label, multicenter study, 195 PNH patients on labeled-dose (900 mg every 2 weeks) eculizumab for greater than 6 months were randomly assigned 1:1 to switch to ravulizumab (n = 97) or continue eculizumab (n = 98). Primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from baseline to day 183. Key secondary endpoints included proportion of patients with breakthrough hemolysis, change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)–Fatigue score, transfusion avoidance, and stabilized hemoglobin. In 191 patients completing 183 days of treatment, ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab (Pinf<.0006 for all endpoints), including percentage change in LDH (difference, 9.21% [95% CI: -0.42 to 18.84], P = 0.058 for superiority), breakthrough hemolysis (difference, 5.1 [95% CI: -8.89 to 18.99]), change in FACIT-Fatigue score (difference, 1.47 [95% CI: -0.21 to 3.15]), transfusion avoidance (difference of 5.5 [95% CI: -4.27 to 15.68]), and stabilized hemoglobin (difference, 1.4 [95% CI: -10.41 to 13.31]). The most frequently reported adverse event was headache (26.8%, ravulizumab; 17.3%, eculizumab). No meningococcal infections or discontinuations due to adverse events occurred. Patients with PNH may be safely and effectively switched from labeled-dose eculizumab administered every 2 weeks to ravulizumab administered every 8 weeks. (Funded by Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03056040).

  • Submitted September 27, 2018.
  • Accepted November 18, 2018.