MicroRNAs 15a/16-1 function as tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma

Moshe E. Gatt, Jian-Jun Zhao, Margaret S. Ebert, Yunyu Zhang, Zhangbo Chu, Mala Mani, Roi Gazit, Daniel E. Carrasco, Jui Dutta-Simmons, Sophia Adamia, Stéphane Minvielle, Yu-Tzu Tai, Nikhil C. Munshi, Hervé Avet-Loiseau, Kenneth C. Anderson and Daniel R. Carrasco
This article has been retracted 117(26):7188


Multiple myeloma is characterized by frequent chromosomal alterations. Deletion of chr 13, especially band 13q14, is commonly observed in early stages of MM, suggesting the presence of tumor suppressor genes within this region. Here, we functionally validate the role of the microRNAs-15a/16-1 cluster, centered at the deleted region, as TSGs and delineate their downstream target genes in MM. Using "sponge" lentiviral vectors to competitive stably inhibit mature microRNAs in vitro and in vivo, we have documented enhanced proliferative and invasive capacity of cells with stably inhibition of miR-16. Importantly, miR-16 inhibition decreased animal survival in a xenograft model of MM by increasing tumor load and host angiogenesis. Expression profiling analysis of miR-16-deficient cells identified a large number of downstream target genes including FGFR1, PI3KCa, MDM4, VEGFa, as well as secondary affected genes such as JUN and Jag1. We validated designated genes showing binding sites within the conserved 3'-UTR and also within the mRNA coding region as direct miR-16 targets, thus indicating that the miRNAs may have many more targets than anticipated by conventional prediction methods. This loss-of-function system, which mimics the 13q chromosomal deletion, provides a valuable tool to investigate their function in MM pathogenesis and their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  • Submitted November 16, 2009.
  • Accepted August 26, 2010.