Hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in clotting factor VIII (FVIII). A canine model that closely mimics the human disease was used to determine if an adenoviral vector expressing a human FVIII cDNA could be used to correct the hemophilia A phenotype. Within 48 hours after peripheral vein administration of the vector to FVIII-deficient dogs, the hemophilic phenotype was corrected, based on determination of the activated clotting time, the activated partial thromboplastin time, and the cuticle bleeding time. Direct measurement of human FVIII in the dog plasma showed FVIII expression at amounts well above the human therapeutic level. FVIII expression in treated dogs was short-term, lasting 1 to 2 weeks, due to the development of a human FVIII-specific inhibitor antibody response. These data provide the first demonstration of in vivo gene therapy of hemophilia A.