Mutant mice with splenomegaly and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia were found in an inbred colony of the CBA/N (hereafter CBA) strain maintained in the Japan SLC Haruno farm (Shuchi-gun, Shizuoka, Japan). The activity of pyruvate kinase (PK) in red blood cells (RBCs) of the anemic mutants decreased to 16.2% of normal (+/+) CBA mice. Because the mutant CBA mice showed a remarkable reticulocytosis (41.6%) and because the PK activity of reticulocytes is much higher than that of mature RBCs, the PK activity in mature RBCs of the mutant CBA mice was calculated to be 2.8% that of mature RBCs of CBA-(+/+) mice. Because RBC type PK is encoded by the Pk-1 locus of the mouse (chromosome 3), we designated the mutant locus as Pk-1slc. The anemia and PK deficiency of CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice were cured by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from CBA-(+/+) mice. Prior irradiation was not necessary for the curative BMT. On the other hand, the BMT from CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice to nonirradiated CBA-(+/+) mice did not result in the decrease of RBCs and the reduction of PK activity. The present results indicate that CBA- Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice are a potentially useful animal model for studying pathophysiology of PK deficiency and for developing new therapeutic methods to correct PK deficiency.