The complete amino acid sequences of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of a human IgM monoclonal platelet-binding autoantibody have been determined. This antibody, HF2–1/17, produced by a human x human hybridoma prepared from lymphocytes of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombocytopenia, is polyreactive with single-stranded DNA, synthetic polynucleotides, sulfated carbohydrates, and acidic glycolipids isolated from platelet membranes. The heavy chain is of the VHIII subgroup, and the light chain is of the VKI subgroup. The heavy chain is the expression product of the VH26 germline gene. The light chain bears significant homology to other immunoglobulins of known primary structure, including WEA, GAL, HAU, HK101, and DEE. These results suggest that HF2–1/17 may be an autoantibody derived with little or no modification from germline genes. A model of the antibody combining site suggests that arginine 24 and arginine 30 in the light chain (CDR1) interact with a surface defined by phosphate or sulfate groups of the antigen.