Monoclonal antibodies that react with hematopoietic cells and their precursors in a stage and lineage restricted fashion were used in indirect immunofluorescence assays to examine leukemic cells from 105 pediatric age patients. The differentiative states of blasts from 42 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were defined by these antibodies. When these were compared to their morphologic and histochemical levels of differentiation as defined by the French- American-British (FAB) classification, no direct relationship was found. The reactivity of these antibodies with leukemic cells from 63 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemiA (ALL) was also investigated, and the usefulness of these antibodies in distinguishing leukemias of myeloid from those of lymphoid origin was demonstrated.