Despite androgens and intensive supportive care, satisfactory survival in severe aplastic anemia remains at 20% or less. Histocompatible bone marrow transplantation can restore normal hematopoiesis in approximately 40% of similarly severe individuals. Delay of transplantation for 3 wk after diagnosis allows time for proper evaluation and for many spontaneous recoveries. Further delay increases risks of fatal complications and decreases chances for successful transplantation while the incidence of spontaneous remission declines. When available, early histocompatible bone marrow transplantation may be the treatment of choice for severe aplastic anemia.