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Treatment of rare factor deficiencies other than hemophilia

Marzia Menegatti and Flora Peyvandi

Abstract

The deficiency of fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V (FV), FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXIII, called rare coagulation disorders (RCDs), may result in coagulopathies leading to spontaneous or posttrauma and postsurgery hemorrhages. RCDs are characterized by a wide variety of symptoms, from mild to severe, which can vary significantly from 1 disease to another and from 1 patient to another. The most typical symptoms of all RCDs are mucosal bleedings and bleeding at the time of invasive procedures, whereas other life-threatening symptoms such as central nervous system bleeding and hemarthroses are mostly present only in some deficiencies (afibrinogenemia, FX, and FXIII). At variance with hemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease, RCDs are much less prevalent, ranging from 1 case in 500 000 to 1 in 2 million in the general population. Their clinical heterogeneity associated with the low number of patients has led to a delay in the development of appropriate therapies. Indeed, a similar heterogeneity can also be found in the treatment products available, ranging from the specific recombinant proteins to treat FVII- and FXIII-deficient patients to the complete absence of specific products to treat patients with FII or FV deficiencies, for whom prothrombin complex concentrates or fresh frozen plasma are, to date, the only option. The recent development of novel hemostatic approaches for hemophilia, such as the use of nonsubstitutive therapy as RNA interference, anti–tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and the gene therapy aimed at improving the patient’s quality of life may also have an important role in the treatment of patients with RCDs in the future.

  • Submitted June 29, 2018.
  • Accepted September 18, 2018.
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