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The ECHELON-2 Trial: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Phase 3 Study of Brentuximab Vedotin and CHP (A+CHP) Versus CHOP in the Frontline Treatment of Patients with CD30+ Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas

Steven M. Horwitz, Owen A. O'Connor, Barbara Pro, Tim M. Illidge, Michelle A. Fanale, Ranjana H Advani, Nancy L. Bartlett, Jacob Haaber Christensen, Franck Morschhauser, Eva Domingo-Domenech, Giuseppe Rossi, Won Seog Kim, Tatyana A. Feldman, Anne Lennard, David Belada, Árpád Illés, Kensei Tobinai, Kunihiro Tsukasaki, Su-Peng Yeh, Andrei R. Shustov, Andreas Hüttmann, Kerry J Savage, Sam Yuen, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Zhaowei Hua, Meredith Little, Shangbang Rao, Joseph Woolery, Thomas Manley and Lorenz Trümper

Abstract

Background

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). PTCL accounts for approximately 10% of all NHL cases in the US and Europe, and may be as high as 24% in Asia. The most common frontline treatment of PTCL is anthracycline-based chemotherapy with CHOP or CHOP-like regimens which do not produce durable remissions in the majority of subtypes, including ALK+ systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL) with high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores. Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate directed against CD30 currently approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory sALCL with demonstrated antitumor activity in frontline PTCL. A phase 1 trial combining brentuximab vedotin with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHP [CHOP without vincristine to eliminate additive neurotoxicity]) as frontline treatment of PTCL demonstrated estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of 52% and 79% (Fanale 2018). Based on the encouraging activity and manageable safety profile of the combination, the ECHELON-2 trial was initiated to compare the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin in combination with CHP (A+CHP) versus standard CHOP for the treatment of patients (pts) with PTCL (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01777152). Here we report the blinded, pooled analyses per investigator of the ECHELON-2 trial.

Methods

ECHELON-2 is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter study. Adults with newly diagnosed CD30+ (≥10% of neoplastic cells by local review) PTCL were enrolled. Pts with ALK+ sALCL were required to have an IPI ≥2. The primary endpoint of ECHELON-2 is PFS per an independent review facility. Pts were randomized 1:1 to receive 21-day cycles of either CHOP or A+CHP for 6 to 8 cycles. Consolidative SCT or radiotherapy was permitted at the investigator's discretion after end of treatment.

Results

A total of 452 pts across 17 countries were randomized between January 2013 and November 2016 in Europe (44%), North America (29%), and other (26%) regions including Asia and Australia. The median age was 58 years (range, 18-85) and 63% were male. Most pts were white (62%) or Asian (22%). Most pts entering the study had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 (39% each) and the remaining 22% of pts had a performance status of 2. Most pts had advanced-stage disease (Stage III [27%] or IV [53%]) at diagnosis and 78% had IPI scores ≥2 (2 [34%], 3 [29%], 4 [12%]. 5 [3%]). PTCL subtypes included sALCL (316 pts [70%]: ALK+ 98 pts [22%]; ALK- 218 pts [48%]), PTCL - not otherwise specified (72 pts [16%]), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (54 pts [12%]), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (7 pts [2%]), and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (3 pts [1%]).

Of the 452 randomized pts, 449 received at least 1 dose of study treatment and all pts had either completed (82%) or discontinued treatment as of April 2017. Treatment was discontinued for adverse events (AEs) (7%), progressive disease (7%), investigator decision (2%), and patient decision (2%). Preliminary results by investigator assessment, show an overall blinded pooled objective response rate (ORR) following completion of the frontline treatment of 79% (95% CI: 75.4-83.1) with 64% achieving a complete response (CR) (95% CI: 59.1-68.2). With a median follow-up of 35.2 mos, the 3-year PFS and OS for all pts were 52.9% (95% CI: 47.7-57.7) and 73.1% (95% CI: 68.3-77.2).

The incidence of AEs was consistent with the known safety profiles of brentuximab vedotin and CHOP chemotherapy, including the AE of interest, peripheral sensory neuropathy (43%). Grade 3 or higher AEs reported in ≥10% of pts were neutropenia (33%), febrile neutropenia (17%), and anemia (12%).

Conclusions

ECHELON-2 is the largest prospective, randomized, double-blind study to compare the efficacy and safety of standard CHOP with an alternative regimen that includes a CD30-targeted agent in frontline treatment of sALCL and other CD30+ PTCLs. Blinded pooled data from ECHELON-2 show that the treatment was well tolerated with encouraging 3-year PFS and OS rates. The primary analysis by treatment regimen will be unblinded prior to the meeting and presented at the conference.

Disclosures Horwitz: Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Aileron Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Innate Pharma: Consultancy; Millennium/Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding; Forty Seven: Consultancy, Research Funding; Corvus: Consultancy; Mundipharma: Consultancy; ADC Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Trillium: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Portola: Consultancy; Infinity/Verastem: Consultancy, Research Funding; Spectrum: Research Funding; Kyowa-Hakka-Kirin: Consultancy, Research Funding. O'Connor: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding. Pro: kiowa: Honoraria; Takeda Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; portola: Honoraria. Illidge: Nordic Nanovector: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria. Fanale: Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; Merck & Co: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding. Advani: Agensys: Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bristol Myers Squibb: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board, Research Funding; Astra Zeneca: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board; Merck: Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; Autolus: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board; Celgene: Research Funding; Kyowa: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board; Regeneron: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Infinity: Research Funding; Kura: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board, Research Funding; Gilead/Kite: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board; Cell Medica: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board; Millenium: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board, Research Funding; Forty Seven Inc.: Research Funding; Bayer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Participated in an advisory board. Bartlett: KITE: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; Astra Zeneca: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; ImaginAB: Research Funding; Gilead: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Merck & Co: Research Funding; Immune Design: Research Funding; Acerta: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding; Forty Seven: Research Funding; Affimed: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Bristol-Meyers Squibb: Research Funding; Millennium: Research Funding. Christensen: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Morschhauser: Janssen: Other: Scientific Lectures; BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Epizyme: Consultancy; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Gilead: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Domingo-Domenech: Affimed: Research Funding. Rossi: Novartis: Honoraria; Jazz: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Teva: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses; Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Travel expenses; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; BMS: Honoraria; Mundipharma: Honoraria; Sandoz: Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding; Alexion: Other: Travel expenses. Feldman: Portola: Research Funding; Celgene: Speakers Bureau; Pharmacyclics: Speakers Bureau; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; KITE: Speakers Bureau; Johnson and Johnson: Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Speakers Bureau. Lennard: Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Belada: Janssen-Cilag: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Illés: Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Tobinai: Zenyaku Kogyo: Consultancy, Honoraria; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Eisai: Honoraria, Research Funding; Ono Pharmaceutical: Honoraria, Research Funding; SERVIER: Research Funding; Abbvie: Research Funding; GlaxoSmithKline: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding; Mundipharma: Honoraria, Research Funding; Kyowa Hakko Kirin: Honoraria, Research Funding; HUYA Bioscience International: Consultancy, Honoraria; Chugai Pharma: Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding. Tsukasaki: Celgene: Honoraria; Eisai: Research Funding; Chugai Pharma: Honoraria, Research Funding; HUYA: Consultancy, Research Funding; Ono Pharma: Consultancy; Daiich-Sankyo: Consultancy; Mundy Pharma: Honoraria; Kyowa-hakko/Kirin: Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Yeh: GNT Biotech & Medicals Crop.: Research Funding. Shustov: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Hüttmann: Roche: Other: Travel expenses; Celgene: Other: Travel expenses. Savage: Verastem: Consultancy, Honoraria; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Merck: Consultancy, Honoraria; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Honoraria; Servier: Consultancy. Yuen: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Zinzani: MSD: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Celltrion: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; SERVIER: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Astra Zeneca: Speakers Bureau; Verastem: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Merck: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; TG Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; PFIZER: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; TG Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bayer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; PFIZER: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bayer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Merck: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Hua: Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co.: Employment. Little: Takeda Pharmaceuticals: Employment. Rao: Seattle Genetics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Woolery: Seattle Genetics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Manley: Seattle Genetics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Trümper: Seattle Genetics: Research Funding.

  • * Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.