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Efficacy and Feasibility of Dose/Schedule-Adjusted Rd-R Vs. Continuous Rd in Elderly and Intermediate-Fit Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma (NDMM) Patients: RV-MM-PI-0752 Phase III Randomized Study

Alessandra Larocca, Marco Salvini, Lorenzo De Paoli, Nicola Cascavilla, Giulia Benevolo, Monica Galli, Vittorio Montefusco, Tommaso Caravita di Toritto, Anna Baraldi, Stefano Spada, Nicola Giuliani, Chiara Pautasso, Stefano Pulini, Sonia Ronconi, Norbert Pescosta, Anna Marina Liberati, Francesca Patriarca, Claudia Cellini, Patrizia Tosi, Massimo Offidani, Michele Cavo, Antonio Palumbo, Mario Boccadoro and Sara Bringhen

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) are highly heterogeneous and their outcome is influenced by many factors: beside age, also comorbidities, general physical fitness, and cognitive function play a crucial role. The IMWG frailty score combines age, functional status, and comorbidities, and it identifies fit, intermediate-fit and frail patients, with different risk of toxicity, treatment discontinuation, and mortality (Palumbo A et al. Blood 2015). Until now, evidence-based tailored treatments according to patients' frailty are still lacking. Therefore, this phase III study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of dose/schedule-adjusted lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy followed by lenalidomide maintenance (Rd-R) versus continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) in elderly, intermediate-fit NDMM patients.

METHODS: Intermediate-fit NDMM patients, with a total frailty score (age, Charlson Index, ADL and IADL) of 1 (http://www.myelomafrailtyscorecalculator.net/), were enrolled and randomized to receive Rd-R or continuous Rd. To better approximate a real-world older population, patients usually excluded from clinical trials or with abnormal laboratory values could be included in the trial.

Rd-R treatment consisted of nine 28-day cycles of lenalidomide 25 mg/day for 21 days and dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1,8,15,22, followed by lenalidomide maintenance 10 mg/day for 21 days, until disease progression. Continuous Rd consisted of lenalidomide 25 mg/day for 21 days and dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1,8,15,22, until disease progression. The dose and schedule of continuous Rd was the one adopted in patients >75 years in the FIRST trial (Hulin C et al. JCO 2016).

The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), defined as progression or death for any cause or discontinuation of lenalidomide or occurrence of any hematological grade 4 or non-hematological grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs), including Secondary Primary Malignancies (SPMs), whichever came first.

RESULTS: 199 patients (98 in Rd-R arm and 101 in continuous Rd arm) could be evaluated. Patients characteristics were well balanced between the 2 arms. Median age was 75 and 76 years (p=0.06); 47% in Rd-R vs 57% in continuous Rd were defined intermediate-fit for age (≥76 years), 53% vs 43% due to an impairment in Charlson Index, ADL or IADL (p=ns).

In intention-to-treat analysis, after a median follow-up of 25 months, EFS was 9.3 vs 6.6 months (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99, p=0.04), in Rd-R versus continuous Rd, respectively (Figure 1).

Best response rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups: ≥PR rates were 73% vs 63%, and ≥VGPR rates were 43% vs 35% in the Rd-R vs Rd continuous group, respectively (p=ns).

No difference in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was observed. Median PFS was 18.3 vs 15.5 months (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64-1.34, p=ns) (Figure 1), 18 month-OS was 85% versus 81% (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.40-1.33, p=ns).

Adverse events accounting for EFS (any hematologic grade 4, non-hematologic grade 3-4) were less frequent in the Rd-R group (30% vs 39%) than in the continuous Rd group (p=ns). The most frequent adverse events were neutropenia, infection and skin reactions (less than 10% in each arm). After 9 treatment cycles, these adverse events were less frequent in Rd-R vs continuous Rd group (3% vs 7%, p=ns).

Lenalidomide dose reduction after 9 treatment cycles was required in 1% of Rd-R patients and 21% of continuous Rd patients (p =0.06). Dexamethasone dose reduction was required in 17% vs 29% of patients, respectively (p=0.06).

CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective randomized phase III trial specifically designed for real-life intermediate-fit NDMM patients. A dose/schedule-adjusted Rd-R treatment was more feasible compared to full dose continuous Rd treatment in elderly intermediate-fit NDMM patients, with no negative impact but rather a comparable outcome. These results confirm the need for an appropriate definition of patient frailty, and pave the way to a frailty-adjusted treatment approach to better balance efficacy and safety in elderly NDMM patients.

Disclosures Larocca: Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria; Janssen-Cilag: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria. De Paoli: Amgen: Other: Advisory Board; Janssen: Other: Advisory Board; Celgene: Other: Advisory Board; Gilead: Other: Advisory Board. Galli: Celgene: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria; Sigma-Tau: Honoraria. Montefusco: Janssen: Other: Advisory Board; Amgen: Other: Advisory Board; Celgene: Other: Advisory Board. Caravita di Toritto: Johnson & Johnson: Other: Advisory Board, Travel and Accomodation EHA; Amgen: Other: Advisory Board; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Other: Travel and Accomodation EMN; Takeda: Other: Advisory Board; Celgene: Other: Advisory Board, Travel and Accomodation ASH, Research Funding. Giuliani: Celgene Italy: Other: Avisory Board, Research Funding; Takeda Pharmaceutical Co: Research Funding; Janssen Pharmaceutica: Other: Avisory Board, Research Funding. Patriarca: Jazz: Other: Travel, accommodations, expenses; Janssen: Other: Advisory role; Celgene: Other: Advisory Role; Travel, accommodations, expenses; Medac: Other: Travel, accommodations, expenses; MSD Italy: Other: Advisory Role. Offidani: Takeda: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Janssen: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Celgene: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Amgen: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board. Cavo: GlaxoSmithKline: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AbbVie: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Palumbo: Takeda: Employment. Boccadoro: Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Research Funding; AbbVie: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Honoraria, Research Funding; Mundipharma: Research Funding. Bringhen: Janssen: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Celgene: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria, Other: Advisory Board; Takeda: Consultancy; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria.

  • * Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.