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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation rescues the hematological, immunological, and vascular phenotype in DADA2

Hasan Hashem, Ashish R. Kumar, Ingo Müller, Florian Babor, Robbert Bredius, Jignesh Dalal, Amy P. Hsu, Steven M. Holland, Dennis D. Hickstein, Stephen Jolles, Robert Krance, Ghadir Sasa, Mervi Taskinen, Minna Koskenvuo, Janna Saarela, Joris van Montfrans, Keith Wilson, Barbara Bosch, Leen Moens, Michael Hershfield and Isabelle Meyts on behalf of the Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase Type 2 Foundation

Key Points

  • HSCT represents an effective and definitive treatment of DADA2.

  • HSCT can cure the immunological, hematological, and vascular phenotype of DADA2 with 100% survival at median follow-up of 18 months.

Publisher's Note: There is an Inside Blood Commentary on this article in this issue.

Abstract

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is caused by biallelic deleterious mutations in CECR1. DADA2 results in variable autoinflammation and vasculopathy (recurrent fevers, livedo reticularis, polyarteritis nodosa, lacunar ischemic strokes, and intracranial hemorrhages), immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure. Tumor necrosis factor-α blockade is the treatment of choice for the autoinflammation and vascular manifestations. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a potential definitive treatment. We present a cohort of 14 patients from 6 countries who received HSCT for DADA2. Indication for HSCT was bone marrow dysfunction or immunodeficiency. Six of 14 patients had vasculitis pre-HSCT. The median age at HSCT was 7.5 years. Conditioning regimens were myeloablative (9) and reduced intensity (5). Donors were HLA-matched sibling (n = 1), HLA-matched unrelated (n = 9), HLA-mismatched unrelated (n = 3), and HLA haploidentical sibling (n = 1). All patients are alive and well with no new vascular events and resolution of hematological and immunological phenotype at a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 5 months to 13 years). Plasma ADA2 enzyme activity normalized in those tested post-HSCT (7/7), as early as day +14 (myeloid engraftment). Post-HSCT hematological autoimmunity (cytopenias) was reported in 4 patients, acute graft-versus-host disease grade 1 in 2, grade 2 in 3, and grade 3-4 in 1, and moderate chronic graft-versus-host disease in 1 patient. In conclusion, in 14 patients, HSCT was an effective and definitive treatment of DADA2.

  • Submitted July 28, 2017.
  • Accepted September 26, 2017.
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