Of pools, oceans, and the Dead Sea

Samir K. Ballas

Article Figures & Data


  • Intravenous solutions and the effect of tonicity of extracellular fluids on RBC. (A) IV fluids that are usually used to treat hydration in patients with SCD. (B) RBCs suspended in hypertonic solution lose water, shrink, and are transformed to dehydrated xerocytes. Suspended in hypotonic solution, RBCs gain water, swell, and are transformed to spherocytes. Panel B adapted from OpenStax11 (source: Mariana Ruiz Villareal; licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0). Download for free at