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Complex formation with pentraxin-2 regulates factor X plasma levels and macrophage interactions

Vincent Muczynski, Gabriel Aymé, Véronique Regnault, Marc Vasse, Delphine Borgel, Paulette Legendre, Amine Bazaa, Amélie Harel, Cécile Loubière, Peter J. Lenting, Cécile V. Denis and Olivier D. Christophe

Key Points

  • We have identified PTX2 as a novel partner for FX in the circulation, and their plasma levels are interdependent.

  • FX and PTX2 cooperate with SR-AI to prevent their uptake by macrophages.

Abstract

Recently, we have identified scavenger receptor class A member I (SR-AI) as a receptor for coagulation factor X (FX), mediating the formation of an FX reservoir at the macrophage surface. Here, we demonstrate that the FX/SR-AI-complex comprises a third protein, pentraxin-2 (PTX2). The presence of PTX2 is essential to prevent internalization of FX by SR-AI, and the presence of FX is needed to interfere with internalization of PTX2. Binding studies showed that FX, SR-AI, and PTX2 independently bind to each other (KD,app: 0.2-0.7 μM). Surprisingly, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that FX and PTX2 circulate as a complex in plasma, and complex formation involves the FX activation peptide. No binding of PTX2 to other vitamin K–dependent proteins was observed. Short hairpin RNA–mediated inhibition of PTX2 levels in mice resulted not only in reduced levels of PTX2, but also in similarly reduced FX levels. Moreover, PTX2 and FX levels were correspondingly reduced in SR-AI–deficient mice. Analysis of 71 human plasma samples uncovered a strong correlation between FX and PTX2 plasma levels. Furthermore, plasma samples of patients with reduced FX levels (congenital/acquired FX deficiency or after anti–vitamin K treatment) were characterized by concomitantly decreased PTX2 levels. In conclusion, we identified PTX2 as a novel partner for FX, and both proteins cooperate to prevent their SR-AI–mediated uptake by macrophages. Interestingly, their respective plasma levels are interdependent. These findings seem of relevance in perspective of ongoing clinical trials, in which plasma depletion of PTX2 is used as a therapeutical approach in the management of systemic amyloidosis.

  • Submitted June 24, 2016.
  • Accepted February 11, 2017.
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