CX3CR1-dependent endothelial margination modulates Ly6Chigh monocyte systemic deployment upon inflammation in mice

Pauline Hamon, Pierre-Louis Loyher, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Fabrice Licata, Christophe Combadière and Alexandre Boissonnas

Key Points

  • Blood monocytes are distributed between a marginated and a circulating pool.

  • CX3CR1 regulates inflammatory monocyte residence into the blood vasculature during inflammation.

Publisher's Note: There is an Inside Blood Commentary on this article in this issue.


Two subsets of blood monocytes are commonly described in mice and humans: the classical inflammatory monocytes, which are rapidly mobilized upon inflammation in a CC-chemokine receptor 2–dependent manner, and the nonclassical blood resident monocyte subset that patrols the intraluminal side of the endothelium. Old reports suggest that blood monocytes are distributed into circulating and marginating pools, but no direct evidence of the latter has been obtained so far. Using a combination of in vivo real-time imaging and blood/tissue partitioning by intravascular staining of leukocytes, we showed that both inflammatory and resident monocytes are retained in the bone marrow vasculature, representing an important reservoir of marginated monocytes. Upon lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture–induced peritonitis, these marginated cells are rapidly released and recruited to the peritoneum membrane lumen vasculature where they reside through CX3C-chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1)–dependent adherence. At a later time point, inflammatory monocytes infiltrate the spleen parenchyma but remain mainly intravascular in the vicinity of the lungs and the peritoneum. Our results show that this monocyte deployment is controlled by a CX3CR1-dependent balance between marginating and circulating monocytes and highlight that tissue infiltration is not a mandatory fate for inflammatory monocytes.

  • Submitted August 4, 2016.
  • Accepted December 16, 2016.
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