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Sickle cell disease and stroke

Luis A. Verduzco and David G. Nathan

Article Figures & Data

Figures

  • Figure 1

    Kaplan-Meier survival analysis stratified by TCD result in SCD patients. Stroke risk increases with elevated TCD velocities but is most marked at 200 cm/s and higher. Adapted from Adams et al11 with permission.

  • Figure 2

    Hazard rates of infarctive versus hemorrhagic stroke stratified by age in SCD patients. (Solid line) Infarctive stroke. (Dashed line) Hemorrhagic stroke. Adapted from Ohene-Frempong et al9 with permission.

  • Figure 3

    Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of stroke recurrence with chronic blood transfusions compared with historical controls. Chronic blood transfusion significantly decreases the risk of stroke recurrence. Adapted from Pegelow et al18 with permission.

  • Figure 4

    Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of remaining stroke-free in patients with SCD receiving chronic blood transfusions as opposed to standard care. Chronic blood transfusions decrease the risk of primary stroke compared with standard care. Adapted from Adams et al24 with permission.

  • Figure 5

    Kaplan-Meier estimates of the probability of remaining event-free (stroke or reversion to abnormal TCD velocity) in patients receiving continued blood transfusion (n = 41) compared with no continued transfusion (n = 38). Stopping chronic blood transfusion in SCD patients increases the risk of events within 12 months. Adapted from Adams and Brambilla20 with permission.

  • Figure 6

    Effect of Hct on oxygen transport (hemoglobin concentration × CO) in vivo. Curve B (actual data): in normal dogs, maximum oxygen transport occurs at an Hct of 40%; curve C is a hypothetical curve observed in a human with established PCV; curve A is a hypothetical curve observed in a human with SCD. Modified from Richardson and Guyton73 with permission.