Hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia arising from myelodysplastic syndrome: similar outcomes in patients with de novo disease and disease following prior therapy or antecedent hematologic disorders

ChunKang Chang, Barry E. Storer, Bart L. Scott, Eileen M. Bryant, Howard M. Shulman, Mary E. Flowers, Brenda M. Sandmaier, Robert P. Witherspoon, Richard A. Nash, Jean E. Sanders, Antonio Bedalov, John A. Hansen, Bruce E. Clurman, Rainer Storb, Frederick R. Appelbaum and H. Joachim Deeg


We analyzed outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 257 patients, 3 to 72.7 years old (median, 43 y), with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) including those with transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (tAML). Conditioning regimens included high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI)/chemotherapy (n = 83); busulfan (BU)/cyclophosphamide (CY) (BUCY, n = 122; with BU targeting [tBUCY], n = 93); fludarabine (Flu) with tBU (FLUtBU; n = 12); Flu plus 200 cGy TBI (n = 26); and miscellaneous regimens (n = 14). Donors were HLA-identical or partially mismatched family members in 135 and unrelated individuals in 122 patients. Five-year relapse-free survival was highest (43%) and nonrelapse mortality lowest (28%) among tBUCY-conditioned patients. Outcomes were compared with results in 339 patients who received transplants for de novo MDS/tAML, and a multivariate analysis failed to show significant differences in outcome between the 2 cohorts. Relapse probability and relapse-free survival correlated significantly with disease stage (P < .001) and karyotype (P < .001). Relapse incidence was lower (P = .003) and relapse-free survival superior (P = .02) with unrelated donor transplants. The data suggest that overall inferior outcome in patients with secondary MDS/tAML was related to the frequency of high-risk cytogenetics. For both cohorts, transplantation outcomes improved over the time interval studied.

  • Submitted February 26, 2006.
  • Accepted April 24, 2007.
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